July 23, 2014
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Did you know?

  • We envision a world free from cancer.

    Our research scientists and their teams collaborate with colleagues around the world to conduct cutting-edge research using large data-sets to:
    • understand the causes of cancer
    • find ways to prevent it or detect it early
    • improve outcomes for cancer survivors 
  • Our mission began more than 40 years ago.

    Established in 1974 as the Northern California Cancer Program, the organization later became known as the Northern California Cancer Center. The name was changed again in 2010 when it became the Cancer Prevention Institute of California (CPIC), which reflects the organization's broader scope and demonstrates its large scale impact of preventing cancer before it starts.
  • We are an independent research institute and a valued partner to many.

    Through its collaborative approach, CPIC also serves as an asset to the nation’s leading cancer fighting organizations, including the National Cancer Institute, and to scientists worldwide, educators, patients, and clinicians, and is affiliated with the Stanford Cancer Institute.
  • We work hard to understand who gets cancer and why.

    Our scientists are frequent contributors to major scientific journals, and often present their findings at important cancer-related conferences. CPIC research has been covered by numerous local, national and international media outlets, such as The New York Times and The Washington Post.
  • Every case of cancer counts…and is counted.

    CPIC operates the Greater Bay Area Cancer Registry as part of the National Cancer Institute's Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results program and the California Cancer Registry. As required by law, the registry gathers data from hospitals and doctors on all cancers diagnosed and treated in nine Bay Area counties. This information is used to produce cancer statistics and as a platform for research to understand cancer occurrences and survival. Our registry regularly earns Gold Standard Certification by the North American Association of Central Cancer Registries.
  • Our educational efforts reach people of all ethnicities and backgrounds.

    Our Community Education team provides important information to cancer survivors, health professionals and others through conferences and publications on many cancer-related topics including employment, patient advocacy, care giving, specific cancers, and treatments.

  • Breast cancer rates decline when hormone therapy is stopped.

    CPIC was first to report on the alarmingly high and increasing rates of breast cancer in the Bay Area and Marin County in the 1990s. In subsequent studies, CPIC found that when women stopped taking hormone replacement therapy, breast cancer rates declined immediately and dramatically. This showed that hormone therapy was a major contributor to the high rates previously reported and identified one clear path to breast cancer prevention.
  • Our work to associate tanning beds and melanoma prompted legislation.

    CPIC described increased occurrence of melanoma in young women in California, particularly in high socioeconomic areas, implicating use of tanning beds as one cause. This finding led to passage of the first statewide legislation to ban minors from using tanning beds, which should ultimately reduce occurrences of deadly melanoma in young persons.
  • Physical activity lowers your risk of Breast Cancer

    CPIC found that risk of breast cancer was lower for women engaging in more physical activity, such as walking and biking, doing household chores and yard work, and being active on the job. This shows a simple and practical way women can help prevent breast cancer from occurring.
  • Second-hand smoke increases the risk of lung and breast cancer.

    CPIC studies have shown that women exposed to second-hand tobacco smoke have a higher risk of lung cancer even if they don't smoke, and that exposure to household smoke increases their risk of breast cancer over and above the risk they incur from smoking themselves. These findings have been important in leading to anti-smoking legislation.
  • Vitamin D may reduce the risk of prostate cancer.

    CPIC assessed whether sun exposure, which is the main source of vitamin D, is related to prostate cancer risk. Using the difference in skin color measured on the forehead and upper underarm as an indicator of sun exposure, the study found that prostate cancer risk was reduced by 50% in men with a high sun exposure index, with an even higher reduction in risk noted in men with certain alterations in the vitamin D receptor gene.
  • Survival outcomes differ among Asian women of different ethnic backgrounds.

    CPIC was the first to show that breast cancer survival is not uniform across women of different Asian ethnicities, irrespective of how advanced the cancer was when diagnosed. In California, Korean, South Asian and Vietnamese women had the poorest survival after breast cancer, pointing to the need in these communities for better screening and/or breast cancer treatment.
  • Melanoma is on the rise throughout California.

    CPIC demonstrated that the rates of both early and more advanced melanomas were rising in all populations in California. This disturbing finding signals a true and alarming epidemic of this deadly cancer, and it has been cited over 245 times in the medical literature since 2009 because it identifies a major public health problem.
  • Survival disparities occur across many cancer types.

    CPIC showed that survival after follicular lymphoma, a common form of this cancer, is lower in poorer communities than in more affluent communities. This demonstrates population disparities in cancer treatment and shows a need in poorer communities for more access to skilled lymphoma care, including access to new successful drug treatments.
  • Our nail salon studies have widespread positive impact.

    CPIC found that California nail salons had higher than expected levels of carcinogens and other banned substances in the air, identifying the need for better standards and the importance of clarifying whether such exposures lead to cancer and other undesirable health outcomes.
  • Tailored approaches to healthcare are needed to address cultural differences.

    CPIC used two approaches to learn how best to help Vietnamese communities in California receive lifesaving colorectal cancer screening: one approach involved lay health workers directly educating the community on the importance of screening, and the other involved advertising about colorectal cancer screening. CPIC found that the use of lay health workers worked best to improve the screening rate, proving that organized community involvement improves colorectal screening practices among Vietnamese-Americans in California.
  • Lung cancer afflicts nonsmoking women more than men.

    CPIC was the first to show definitively that among nonsmokers, women were more likely than men to have lung cancer. Until this paper, there were no hard data about the incidence of lung cancer in nonsmokers. This study has been cited extensively as motivation for other research to understand the reasons why.
  • Genetic screening is especially important for African American and Hispanic women.

    CPIC was the first to study the level of BRCA1 mutations (genetic changes responsible for increased risk of breast cancer) in nonwhite women. This work found that young African American and Hispanic women with breast cancer had a particularly high prevalence of BRCA1 mutations, and signaled the importance to these communities and their doctors of screening for this mutation when indicated.

Press Releases

Report Shows Elevation in Marin Melanoma Rates

This news release was issued jointly by the Cancer Prevention Institute of California and Marin County Health & Human Services.


Incidents 43 percent higher than the rest of the Bay Area

FREMONT, CA and SAN RAFAEL, CA -- Melanoma is now the second most commonly diagnosed cancer after prostate cancer for men in Marin County, according to researchers at the Cancer Prevention Institute of California (CPIC) and the Marin County Department of Health and Human Services.

This new report found changes in melanoma incidence rates for Marin County as part of the regular surveillance of cancer in the nine-county Greater Bay Area.  Key findings of the report include: 
  • Melanoma incidence is 43 percent higher in Marin than the Bay Area average from 2007-2011. 
  • The elevation in melanoma incidence in Marin is mostly limited to residents aged 65 and older at diagnosis.
  • Among Marin men, melanoma is now the second most commonly diagnosed cancer after prostate cancer.
“Melanoma is an important cancer to protect yourself against, as it is one of the most rapidly increasing,” said Dr. Christina Clarke, an epidemiologist at CPIC and lead author of the report.  “We are keeping a close eye on the increasing rates we see in Marin County and will continue to work with the health officials and dermatologists there to make sure the county is informed about melanoma and how to prevent it and catch it early.”

The report suggests that higher percentages of persons living in Marin County have risk factors for being diagnosed with melanoma (like fair skin, a history of intense sun exposure, access to screening services) than other areas, as opposed to any exposure unique about the geography of the county.

“Being active in the outdoors is one of the healthiest things we can do, especially as we age. This is an important reminder to bring along that wide brimmed hat, wear sunscreen, protect yourself from the sun and keep connected to your regular doctor for checkups,” Public Health Officer, Dr. Matt Willis said. “We would love to see even more people being active in Marin’s beautiful outdoors. We just want to see them well protected from the sun.”

Among the top recommendations for screening and prevention were:
  • Regular self-examinations with assistance from partner, family member or friend leading to earlier detection.
  • Utilizing the five main sun-protective behaviors to reduce ultraviolet exposure: wearing a hat, wearing a long-sleeved shirt, using sunscreen, wearing sunglasses and seeking shade when possible.
“The Marin County data supports the message that it’s never too late to start sun protection practices,” said Dr. Susan Swetter, Professor of Dermatology and Director of the Pigmented Lesion and Melanoma Program, Stanford University Medical Center and Cancer Institute.  “Awareness of melanoma warning signs and notifying your primary care provider can be lifesaving.”

Dr. Jeffrey Schneider, Chief of Dermatology, Kaiser Permanente Marin and Southern Sonoma, said the report should not change one's overall approach to health, "but it should make us more careful about sun protection when enjoying our wonderful Marin outdoor spaces."  Kaiser recommends wearing a broad-brimmed hat and a Broad-Spectrum sunscreen.  It's handy to keep a second set in your car or with some key items related to your outdoor activities.   

Schneider recommends the ABCDE rule for self-checks of moles:   
  • Asymmetry 
  • Border irregularity 
  • Color variation
  • Diameter over 6 millimeters 
  • Evolving over the past few weeks or months 
"We recommend that residents ask for skin checks when seeing their primary care providers for routine or annual visits,” Schneider said.

About the Cancer Prevention Institute of California
The Cancer Prevention Institute of California (CPIC) is the nation’s premier organization dedicated to preventing cancer and to reducing its burden where it cannot yet be prevented. CPIC tracks patterns of cancer throughout the entire population and identifies those at risk for developing cancer. Its research scientists are leaders in investigating the causes of cancer in large populations to advance the development of prevention-focused interventions. CPIC’s innovative cancer prevention research and education programs, together with the work of the Stanford Cancer Institute, deliver a comprehensive arsenal for defeating cancer. For more information, visit CPIC’s official website at www.cpic.org.

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Media Contact: Jana Cuiper, 510-608-5160 |  jana.cuiper@cpic.org