San Francisco Bay Area Prostate Cancer Study

Few risk factors for prostate cancer have been identified. The San Francisco Bay Area Prostate Cancer Study, a population-based case-control study of prostate cancer in African-American and non-Hispanic white men was conducted to examine the relationship with several potentially modifiable lifestyle factors, including vitamin D from sun exposure, diet and supplements, calcium intake, exercise and other sources of physical activity, body size, and weight change, as well as the role of genetics. The study oversampled on cases diagnosed with advanced prostate cancer (regional or distant stage disease). In-person interviews collected information on demographic background, residential history, lifetime physical activity, sun exposure, occupational history, dietary intake (by food frequency questionnaire), supplement use, body size, weight change, smoking, alcohol consumption, medication use, family history of cancer, and medical factors. Blood or mouthwash samples were collected to investigate whether alterations (genetic polymorphisms) in the vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene and other genes are related to the development of prostate cancer. Interview data, skin pigmentation and anthropometric measurements, and biospecimens were collected for 568 cases diagnosed with advanced prostate cancer, 208 cases diagnosed with localized prostate cancer, and 545 men without a history of prostate cancer (controls). Various analyses and collaborative studies are on-going.

Principal Investigator: Esther M. John, Ph.D.

Co-investigator: Sue Ingles, Dr.P.H., University of Southern California, Mariana Stern, Ph.D., University of Souther California

Funding: California Cancer Research Program/Public Health Institute (864A-8702-S3514); California Cancer Research Program (99-00527V-10182)

Collaborative Studies

California Collaborative Prostate Cancer Study

A parallel population-based case-control study of prostate cancer in African-American, Hispanic and non-Hispanic white men was conducted in Los Angeles county by Dr. Sue Ingles at the University of Southern California. Both the Northern and Southern California study components used the same protocol and data collection instruments for future joint molecular studies and epidemiologic analyses. The combined resource, the California Collaborative Prostate Cancer Study, comprises data and biospecimens for nearly 3,000 men. Joint analyses are on-going, focusing on gene-environment interactions and racial/ethnic differences in risk factors for prostate cancer.

Genetics of Prostate Cancer in African American Men

The DNA resources from the San Francisco Bay Area Prostate Cancer Study have been contributed to several large multi-center studies that aim to identify new susceptibility genes for prostate cancer in African American men. These studies include:

      Admixture mapping in African-American Men, led by Dr. David Reich at Harvard University.

      MADCaP (Men of African Descent and Carcinoma of the Prostate), led by Dr. Tim Rebbeck, University of

      Genome-wide Association study of Prostate Cancer in African American Men, led by Dr. Chris Haiman, 
      University of Southern California

PRACTICAL (Prostate Cancer Association Group to Investigate Cancer Associated Alterations in the Genome) Consortium

This international consortium led by Dr. Rosalind Eeles, Institute of Cancer Research, UK assembled resources from many studies, including the San Francisco Bay Area Prostate Cancer Study, to identify novel susceptibility genes for prostate cancer.


Joshi AD, John EM, Koo J, Ingles SA, Stern MC. Fish intake, cooking practices, and prostate cancer risk. Cancer Causes Control . 2011 Dec 30. [Epub ahead of print]

Rowland GW, Schwartz GG, John EM, Ingles SA. Calcium intake and prostate cancer among African Americans: Effect modification by vitamin D receptor calcium absorption genotype. J Bone Mineral Res. 2011 Sept 1 [Epub ahead of print]

Kote-Jarai Z, Olama AA, Giles GG, Severi G, Schleutker J, Weischer M, Campa D, Riboli E, Key T, Gronberg H, Hunter DJ, Kraft P, Thun MJ, Ingles S, Chanock S, Albanes D, Hayes RB, Neal DE, Hamdy FC, Donovan JL, Pharoah P, Schumacher F, Henderson BE, Stanford JL, Ostrander EA, Sorensen KD, Dörk T, Andriole G, Dickinson JL, Cybulski C, Lubinski J, Spurdle A, Clements JA, Chambers S, Aitken J, Gardiner RA, Thibodeau SN, Schaid D, John EM, Maier C, Vogel W, Cooney KA, Park JY, Cannon-Albright L, Brenner H, Habuchi T, Zhang HW, Lu YJ, Kaneva R, Muir K, Benlloch S, Leongamornlert DA, Saunders EJ, Tymrakiewicz M, Mahmud N, Guy M, O'Brien LT, Wilkinson RA, Hall AL, Sawyer EJ, Dadaev T, Morrison J, Dearnaley DP, Horwich A, Huddart RA, Khoo VS, Parker CC, Van As N, Woodhouse CJ, Thompson A, Christmas T, Ogden C, Cooper CS, Lophatonanon A, Southey MC, Hopper JL, English DR, Wahlfors T, Tammela TL, Klarskov P, Nordestgaard BG, Røder MA, Tybjærg-Hansen A, Bojesen SE, Travis R, Canzian F, Kaaks R, Wiklund F, Aly M, Lindstrom S, Diver WR, Gapstur S, Stern MC, Corral R, Virtamo J, Cox A, Haiman CA, Le Marchand L, Fitzgerald L, Kolb S, Kwon EM, Karyadi DM, Orntoft TF, Borre M, Meyer A, Serth J, Yeager M, Berndt SI, Marthick JR, Patterson B, Wokolorczyk D, Batra J, Lose F, McDonnell SK, Joshi AD, Shahabi A, Rinckleb AE, Ray A, Sellers TA, Lin HY, Stephenson RA, Farnham J, Muller H, Rothenbacher D, Tsuchiya N, Narita S, Cao GW, Slavov C, Mitev V, Easton DF, Eeles RA.  Seven prostate cancer susceptibility loci identified by a multi-stage genome-wide association study. Nat Genet. 2011;43(8):785-791.

John EM, Stern MC, Sinha R, Koo J. Meat consumption, cooking practices, meat mutagens and risk of prostate cancer. Nutr Cancer. 2011;63(4):525-37.

Chang BL, Spangler E, Gallagher S, Haiman CA, Henderson BE, Isaacs WB, Benfor ML, Kidd LR, Cooney K, Strom SS, Ingles SA, Stern MC, Corral R, Joshi AD, Xu J, Giri VN, Rybicki BA, Neslund-Dudas C, Kibel AS, Thompson IM Jr, Leach RJ, Ostrander EA, Stanford J, Witte JS, Casey G, Eeles R; for the UKGPCS Coordinating Group and Collaborators, Hsing AW, Chanock SJ, Hu JJ, John EM, Park JY, Stefflova K, Zeigler-Johnson C,, Rebbeck TR. Validation of Genome-Wide Prostate Cancer Associations in Men of African Descent. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2011;20(1):23-32.

Schwartz GG, John EM, Ingles SA. Prostate cancer in African-American men and polymorphisms in the calcium-sensing receptor. Cancer Biol Therapy. 2010;9(12):994-9.

Eeles RA *, Kote-Jarai Z *, Amin Al Olama A *, Giles GG *, Guy M *, Severi G *, Muir K *, Hopper JL *, Henderson BE *, Haiman CA *, Schleutker J *, Hamdy FC *, Neal DE *, Donovan JL *, Stanford JL *, Ostrander EA *, Ingles SA *, John EM *, Thibodeau SN *, Schaid D *, Park JY *, Spurdle A *, Clements J *, Dickinson JL *, Maier C *, Vogel W *,  Dörk T *, Rebbeck TR *, Cooney KA *, Cannon-Albright L *, Chappuis PO *, Hutter P *, Zeegers M *, Kaneva R *, Zhang H-W *, Lu Y-J *, Foulkes WD *, English DR *, Leongamornlert DA, Tymrakiewicz M, Morrison J, Ardern-Jones AT, Hall AL, O’Brien LT, Wilkinson RA, Saunders EJ, Page EC, Sawyer EJ, Edwards SM, Dearnaley DP, Horwich A, Huddart RA, Khoo VS, Parker CC, Van As N, Woodhouse CJ, Thompson A, Christmas T, Ogden C, Cooper CS, Southey MC, Lophatananon A,  Liu J-F, Kolonel LN, Le Marchand L, Wahlfors T, Tammela TL, Auvinen A, Lewis SJ, Cox A, FitzGerald LM, Koopmeiners JS, Karyadi DM, Kwon EM, Stern MC, Corral R, Joshi AD, Shahabi A, McDonnell SK, Sellers TA, Pow-Sang J, Chambers S, Aitken J, Gardiner RA, Batra J, Kedda MA, Lose F, Polanowski A, Patterson B, Serth J, Meyer A, Luedeke M, Stefflova K, Ray AM, Lange EM, Farnham J, Khan H, Slavov C, Mitkova A, Cao G, The UK Genetic Prostate Cancer Study Collaborators/British Association of Urological Surgeons’ Section of Oncology, The UK ProtecT Study Collaborators, The PRACTICAL Consortium, Douglas F. Easton. Identification of seven new prostate cancer susceptibility loci through a genome-wide association study. Nature Genetics. 2009;41(10):1116-21. ( * joint authorship)

Kote-Jarai Z, Easton D, Stanford JL, Ostrander EA, Schleutker J, Ingles SA, Schaid D, Thibodeau S, Dörk T, Neal D, Cox A, Maier C, Vogel W, Guy M, Muir K, Lophatananon A, Kedda MA, Spurdle A, Steginga S, John EM, Giles G, Hopper J, Chappuis PO, Hutter P, Foulkes WD, Hamel N, Salinas CA, Koopmeiners JS, Karyadi DM, Johanneson B, Wahlfors T, Tammela TL, Stern MC, Corral R, McDonnell SK, Schürmann P, Meyer A, Kuefer R, Leongamornlert D, Tymrakiewitz M, Liu J, O’Mara T, Gardiner RA, Aitken J, Joshi AD, Severi G, English DR, Southey M, Al Olama AA, The PRACTICAL group, Eeles RA. Multiple novel prostate cancer predisposition loci confirmed by an international study: the PRACTICAL Consortium. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2008;17(8):2052–61.

Haiman CA, Patterson N, Freedman ML, Myers SR, Pike MC, Waliszewska A, Neubauer J, Tandon A, Schirmer C, McDonald GJ, Greenway SC, Stram DO, Le Marchand L, Kolonel LN, Frasco M, Wong D, Pooler LC, Ardlie K, Oakley-Girvan I, Whittemore AS, Cooney KA, John EM, Ingles SA, Altshuler D, Henderson BE, Reich D. Multiple regions within 8q24 independently affect risk for prostate cancer. Nature Genet. 2007;39:638-44.

Freedman ML, Haiman CA, Patterson N, McDonald GJ, Tandon A, Waliszewska A, Penney K, Steen RG, Ardlie K, John EM, Oakley-Girvan I, Whittemore AS, Cooney KA, Ingles SA, Altshuler D, Henderson BE, Reich D. Admixture mapping identifies 8q24 as a prostate cancer risk locus in African American men. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 2006;103:14068-73.

Robinson WR, Stevens J, Gammon MD, John EM. Obesity before age 30 and risk of advanced prostate cancer. Am J Epidemiol. 2005;161:1107-14.

John EM, Schwartz GG, Koo J, Van Den Berg D, Ingles S. Sun exposure, vitamin D receptor polymorphisms and risk of advanced prostate cancer. Cancer Res. 2005;65:5470-9.

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